Ask the Expert: Motivating Students to Achieve Through High Expectations
Students who learn differently are capable of achieving and meeting high expectations, and are doing that and more at Landmark College in Vermont.
Expectations serve as a powerful framework for a child’s growth and development—they show children what the adults in their lives believe they are capable of achieving. This belief in their abilities instills them with the confidence to try to reach these benchmarks. When parents, teachers and coaches encourage students to try their best and not give up even when the bar is high, they instill confidence. Most importantly, they instill a belief in the student that they are capable of achieving these high expectations. This is called a growth mindset. Belief in high expectations by people who matter to students builds their confidence.
When teachers set high expectations, it can be a motivator for students to challenge their pre-conceived notions of ability. If not carefully articulated, it can also foster a fixed mindset. A fixed mindset is where students believe that they have a limited intellectual ability or fixed capacity for learning and shy away from trying to reach high expectations because of a fear of failure. When teachers and instructors do not communicate these high expectations as goal posts they believe that students can achieve, then students themselves start setting low bars for themselves. In my three decades of professional experience with college students, I often hear stories of students with learning and attention issues being ignored in the classroom because their teachers had written them off. The teachers did not want to embarrass the students by asking them challenging questions. Students pick up on such cues quickly and start believing they are less than their peers.
Meeting and Exceeding High Expectations
In my role as Vice President for Educational Research and Innovation at Landmark College, I have been amazed by what our students have achieved in their independent study research projects. Recently, I had the honor of witnessing two of our students present a virtual reality (VR) project - Passage to Hunza - at our LD (Learning Differences) Innovation Symposium at MIT in Boston, MA. Computer Science students worked with a student from Fine Arts to create a VR platform that sought to introduce basic concepts in statistics such as correlation through a video game.
Students who learn differently are capable of achieving and meeting high expectations given the opportunity and an alternative path to do so. They are just as capable as their peers; but someone has to believe in them and has to convey that belief in a meaningful way.
When we as educators set high goals and give students the opportunity and support needed to demonstrate successful outcomes, students start believing in us AND themselves. It changes lives. As an educator who works primarily with students who learn differently, I see this every day. A recent Center for American Progress (CAP) study from the National Center for Education Statistics found that when teacher expectations for mainstream students were high, students’ performance was also high. The same applies for students who learn differently. For students to believe in high expectations, they must be authentic, sincere, and anchored in reality. No expectation is too high if it promotes student’s confidence and desire to not give up. High expectations and positive experiences beget successful outcomes, while low expectations and negative experiences lead to a sense of dejection and unsuccessful outcomes for students.
There are many ways for educators who work with students who learn differently to set high expectations and facilitate a positive outcome. The following is a list of recommendations based on the Landmark College approach to setting high expectations without turning off students:
- Advisors start by building a relationship of trust with the student.
- Faculty create a “safe space to fail” while holding high academic expectations.
- Faculty show students the small steps needed to achieve high goals.
- Students know that the entire campus community is rooting for them to succeed.
- Students are held accountable for their actions and are expected to take ownership of their learning goals.
At Landmark College, high expectations are the norm. Students come to realize that they can actually achieve their dreams of a college degree because it is expected they will. Perhaps most importantly, students start to believe in themselves, because everyone else shares the same belief. Every student deserves the opportunity to learn and succeed in their own way. High expectations by parents and educators makes the path a bit easier.
Manju Banerjee, Ph.D. is the Vice President of Educational Research and Innovation at Landmark College, one of the only accredited colleges in the US designed exclusively for students who learn differently
Ask the Expert: Why Sports and LD Can Lead to Excellence
The Landmark College associate professor discusses the potential benefits of athletics for students with learning differences.
It’s well-documented that students with learning differences (LD) and executive function disorder are just as smart as their peers, and can reach their potential with the right accommodations. However, a growing body of research shows not only that LD affects athletic performance, but that sports can help students manage their LD. In fact, a synergy of athletic and academic modifications can have an immense impact on a student’s success.
Extracurricular activities give students a chance to apply the learning strategies they’re developing to a setting outside the classroom. My own work as a faculty member at Landmark College and the experiences of my colleague John Wood, a resident dean who’s coached many athletes at Landmark, have shown this difference firsthand: The graduation rate of student-athletes is 62 percent higher than students who aren’t athletes. We stress the importance of extracurricular activities for several reasons:
- Structure: Belonging to an athletic club or team provides students with a reliable schedule, and students must develop a routine in order to make time for school work and other priorities. It’s well-documented that free time is the bane of students with executive function disorder. Practice schedules leave students with less unstructured time on weeknights and weekends, providing form and routine to their days and weeks.
- Goal clarity: Team and individual sports provide students with the chance to set, meet and modify goals. Not only does this teach goal setting, those goals can translate to the classroom, as well, since students have to maintain a certain GPA in order to play sports. The urgency of this benchmark is often more meaningful, and thus more motivating, for the student.
- Exercise: At Landmark, we encourage exercise even for students who aren’t necessarily athletes due to its vast benefits. Neuropsychiatrist John Ratey frequently cites research that says 30 minutes of moderately rigorous physical activity can improve cognitive flexibility and executive functions. There is encouraging evidence, requiring further study, pointing to other types of physical activities that improve executive functions. Furthermore, exercise improves sleep quality and eating habits, both of which are correlated to heightened academic performance.
When parents, educators and coaches learn that a student struggles with executive functioning disorder, their first step is often to discourage extracurricular activities so the student can spend extra time focusing on schoolwork. Not only is this an inadvertent punishment for having an LD that’s gone misunderstood or undiagnosed, but it’s an opportunity lost to help that student’s academic performance through athletics. The perseverance and grit it takes to persist in school with an LD can often power the same kind of determination on the field—another point of synergistic interaction.
High school and college coaches serve as role models and educators. They’re responsible for shaping the lives of students as they grow athletically, socially and academically; therefore, they should understand the basics of the learning process and work to be attuned to how players learn. This includes the ability to recognize the signs of LD and the need for accommodation. For instance, Coach Wood points out that at Landmark College, an athlete with attention or memory challenges may be called on to re-verbalize or repeat the steps of a particular drill or technique. This provides repetition for the team and ensures the student understands what’s being asked.
Many students excel in their sport when they’re younger because they’re just learning the individual skills of the sport: it’s pure play. The experience gets more challenging as they advance, and competition and rules become more intense and sophisticated. Here, they can run up against their LD—maybe there’s a difficulty remembering multiple plays or following a coach’s instructions yelled over a crowd. Some become discouraged and believe they can no longer be an athlete.
While there are many students out there that have given up, there’s a lot of hope. We see it all the time when someone rediscovers the athlete within themselves. It’s a defining moment in their growth as they find new tools to help them shape and manage their own life and learning. If we bring this knowledge to coaches, and provide them with a crash course in education, brain function and neurodiversity, they’ll be better prepared to help students achieve on the court and in the classroom, and consequently change the lives of thousands of students.
After all, there’s an athlete in everyone.
Rebecca Matte is an associate professor of core education at Landmark College, whose student population consists entirely of students with learning differences such as dyslexia, ADHD or autism.